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Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)

Science and technology of a transformational multifunctional ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) coating

Orlando Auciello

This review focuses on describing the fundamental/applied materials science and technological applications of a transformational multifunctional diamond-based material named ultranano­crytalline diamond (UNCDTM) in film form. The UNCDTM films are synthesized using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) and hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD), via patented Ar/CH4 gas flown into air evacuated chambers, using microwave power, or hot filaments’ surface, to crack CH4 molecules to generate C atoms and CHx (x = 1, 2, 3) species, which produce chemical reactions on substrates’ surfaces, producing diamond film with grain sizes in the range 3–5 nm (smallest grain size known today for any polycrystalline diamond film), providing the bases for the name UNCD. UNCD coatings exhibit a unique combination of properties, namely: (1) super high hardness and Young modulus, similar to the crystal gem of diamond; (2) lowest coefficient of friction compared to other diamond or diamond-like coatings; (3) no mechanical surface wear; (4) highest resistance to chemical attach by any corrosive fluid; (5) only diamond film exhibiting electrical conductivity via Nitrogen inserted in grain boundaries, binding to C atoms and providing electrons for electrical conduction, or B atoms substituting C atoms in the diamond lattice, providing electrons to the conduction band; and (6) best biocompatibility, since UNCD coatings are formed by C atoms (element of life in human DNA, cells/molecules). The UNCD films’ properties provide unique multifunctionalities, enabling new generations of industrial, electronic, high-tech, and implantable medical devices/prostheses, enabling substantial improvement in the way and quality of life of people worldwide.

Functional Diamond
Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)

Research progress of diamond/aluminum composite interface design

Zengkai Jiao,
Huiyuan Kang,
Bo Zhou,
Aolong Kang,
Xi Wang,
Haichao Li,
Zhiming Yu,
Li Ma,
Kechao Zhou,
Qiuping Wei

Diamond/aluminum composite material has the advantages of high thermal conductivity, low expansion, and lightweight, which has a wide range of application prospects in the field of electronic packaging thermal management. However, the serious interface problems between diamond and aluminum limit the full play of the thermal conductivity of composite materials. A reasonable interface design can maximize the thermal conductivity of composite materials. This article focuses on the interface modification of diamond/aluminum composites, briefly describing the theoretical basis of interface design, the research status of interface modification, interface reaction and composite stability, and prospects for diamond/aluminum composites material development.

Diamond/aluminum composite;
interface modification;
thermal conductivity;
thermal expansion coefficient
Functional Diamond
Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)

Radiation effect of X-ray with 100 kGy dose on the electrical properties of MESFET based on hydrogen-terminated diamond surface conductivity

Mingchao Yang,
Takehiro Shimaoka,
Liwen Sang,
Junichi H. Kaneko,
Satoshi Koizumi,
Meiyong Liao

The irradiation effect of X-ray on the electrical properties of Schottky-barrier diode (SBD) and metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFET) based on the surface conductivity of hydrogen-terminated single-crystal diamond (SCD) epilayers was investigated. The Ohmic contact was formed by a Pd/Ti/Au multilayer and the Schottky metal was Al thin film for the fabrication of the diamond SBDs and MESFETs. The X-ray irradiation was performed with a dose of 100 kGy. It was observed that both the forward current of the SBDs and the drain current of the MESFETs experienced a reduction after the X-ray irradiation. The type of the single-crystal diamond substrate had an obvious effect on the radiation properties. For the MESFETs on the type-Ib SCD substrate, the variation of the drain currents as the irradiation was inhomogeneous across the devices. For the MESFETs on the type-IIa SCD substrate, the reduction of the drain currents is more uniform and the threshold voltage changed little upon X-ray irradiation. The partial oxidation in the air of the exposure area in the device and the edge of the Al gate may be responsible for the degradation of the device performance under X-ray irradiation. The passivation technique with radiation-robustness is needed for diamond devices based on the surface conductivity of diamond.

Single-crystal diamond;
surface conductivity;
metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor
Functional Diamond
Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)

Study of horizontal and vertical uniformity of B-doped layer on mosaic single crystal diamond wafers by using hot-filament chemical vapor deposition

Hideaki Yamada,
Takehiro Shimaoka

Aiming at developing inch-sized processing of diamond, B-doped layer was grown on mosaic single-crystallin diamond wafers by using hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (CVD), which is expected to have an advantage in terms of the deposition area compared with microwave plasma (MWP) CVD. Uniformity in horizontal and vertical directions is studied. It is found that the junctions of the monocrystalline diamond domains in the mosaic wafer and the direction of the crystal off-angles against to these junctions are less effective to the uniformity of the impurity concentrations. On the other hand, it is suggested that excess incorporation of W from the filament suppresses the growth and incorporation of B. It is shown that millimeter scale or more precise control of the arrangement of the wafer and the filament enables to obtain more uniform and efficient doping.

Functional Diamond
Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)

Luminescent diamond composites

Vadim Sedov,
Sergei Kuznetsov,
Artem Martyanov,
Victor Ralchenko

Diamond is valuable material with extraordinary high thermal conductivity and transparency in a wide spectral range from UV to IR and longer wavelengths. Defects and impurities in the diamond lattice can absorb and emit light at wavelengths specific for each of such “color centers.” Particularly, the vacancy-related defects in diamond, such as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) or silicon-vacancy (SiV) centers, are actively investigated due to their potential for biomedicine, quantum optics, local thermometry and magnetometry. Although a great variety of different color centers in diamond are discovered, only a limited number of those point defects can be reliably reproduced in synthetic diamond, obtained either by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT). An alternative approach to producing luminescent diamond-based materials is to integrate stable non-diamond sources of luminescence in the form of nano- or microparticles of foreign materials into the pristine diamond. The produced diamond composites possess excellent properties of diamond combined with optical emission characteristics, which cannot be provided with intrinsic defects in diamond. The good candidates for the materials of such impurities are well-investigated fluorides and oxides doped by rare-earth elements (RE) or other luminescent chalcogenides such as sulfides, selenides and tellurides. Here we briefly review recent achievements in fabrication and properties of these new luminescent diamond-RE composites, compare them with luminescent properties of doped diamond, and outline prospects for applications of the luminescent diamond composites for photonics, markers, monitors of high-power synchrotron, X-ray beams and X-ray lasers.

polycrystalline films;
CVD growth;
rare earth elements;
X-ray luminescence
Functional Diamond
Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)

Hydrogen-terminated diamond MOSFETs on (0 0 1) single crystal diamond with state of the art high RF power density

Cui Yu,
Chuangjie Zhou,
Jianchao Guo,
Zezhao He,
Mengyu Ma,
Hao Yu,
Xubo Song,
Aimin Bu,
Zhihong Feng

Diamond field-effect transistor (FET) has great application potential for high frequency and high power electronic devices. In this work, diamond FETs were fabricated on (0 0 1) single crystal diamond with homoepitaxial layer. The nitrogen impurity content in the homoepitaxial layer is greatly decreased as measured by the Raman and photoluminescence spectra. The diamond field effect transistor with 100 nm Al2O3 as gate dielectric shows ohomic contact resistance of 35 Ω . mm, maximum drain saturation current density of 500 mA/mm, and maximum transconductance of 20.1 mS/mm. Due to the high quality of Al2O3 gate dielectric and single crystal diamond substrate, the drain work voltage of −58 V is achieved for the diamond FETs. A continuous wave output power density of 4.2 W/mm at 2 GHz is obtained. The output power densities at 4 and 10 GHz are also improved and achieve 3.1 and 1.7 W/mm, respectively. This work shows the application potential of single crystal diamond for high frequency and high power electronic devices.

field effect transistor;
power density
Functional Diamond
Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)

Inconsistency of BDD reactivity assessed by ferri/ferro-cyanide redox system and electrocatalytic degradation capability

Ruitong Zhu,
Fangmu Liu,
Zejun Deng,
Yuhang Yu,
Li Ma,
Hangyu Long,
Kechao Zhou,
Zhiming Yu,
Qiuping Wei

Ferri/ferro-cyanide ([Fe(CN)6]3−/4−) redox couple has been extensively used as a benchmark to assess electrocatalytic degradation capability of boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. However, the [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− is far more sensitive to the surface terminal groups of BDD surface than the other factors (e.g. surface morphology and electrode configuration) that are closely related to electrocatalytic degradation properties. Thus, inconsistency exists while correlating the degradation properties of BDD with electrochemical properties determined from ferri/ferro-cyanide redox couple. Herein, an exemplar pollutant, reactive blue 19 (RB-19), was electrochemically degraded using various terminated BDD electrodes, including hydrogen-terminated (H-BDD), oxygen-terminated (O-BDD) and porous oxygen-terminated BDDs (OE-BDD), obtained via cathodic and anodic polarization as well as oxygen plasma etching, respectively. Surprisingly, OE-BDD with the lower heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant for [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− showed a better electrocatalytic degradation capability toward RB-19, indicating the inconsistency for qualitatively evaluating degradation properties according to the kinetic parameters extracted from [Fe(CN)6]3−/4− redox system.

boron-doped diamond;
Functional Diamond
Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)

Designing of room temperature diluted ferromagnetic Fe doped diamond semiconductor

Tianwei Li,
Jianxin Hao,
Wei Cao,
Tingting Jia,
Zhenxiang Cheng,
Qiuming Fu,
Hongyang Zhao,
Zhibin Ma

Semiconductor devices generally take advantage of the charge of electrons, whereas magnetic materials are used for recording information involving electron spin. To make use of both charge and spin of electrons in semiconductors, a high concentration of magnetic elements can be introduced in nonmagnetic III-V semiconductors to make magnetic semiconductor. In this work, Fe-Diamond was obtained with low solubility by modified microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition technique. Magnetic measurements revealed that the magnetic transition temperature from paramagnetic to ferromagnetic-like is above room temperature. The bandgap of Fe-Diamond is calculated to be 1.65 eV, which indicates that Fe-Diamond is a room temperature diluted ferromagnetic semiconductor.

Fe doped diamond;
Functional Diamond
Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)

Research on controllable ozone oxidation on diamond surface

Tao Qiu,
Meihua Liu,
Tangbangguo Zhou,
Xu Lin,
Bin Xu

In recent years, there have been more and more researches on the surface modification of diamonds, however, the exact types and quantities of oxygen-related species on diamond surfaces and the method to control the condition parameters to obtain as many oxygen-containing groups as possible have been rarely studied so far. Therefore, in this work, we focused on these questions. And we find out that ozone oxidation would not affect the overall crystal structure and morphology of diamonds. Besides, changing oxidation time and ozone concentration would significantly influence the density of hydroxyl groups, which is manifested as a change of oxygen content. In order to make the hydroxyl density on diamond surface reach a high level (3.12 × 1014 units/cm2), so that diamonds can be better combined with the resin matrix, the ozone oxidation time should be 15 min, and the ozone concentration should be 115 g•m−3. And under these conditions, the thermal conductivity of diamond and polysiloxane composites can reach 8.02 W/mK.

oxidation by ozone;
quantitative analysis;
controllable oxygen-related species
Functional Diamond
Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)

A single-crystalline diamond X-ray detector based on direct sp-to-sp conversed graphene electrodes

Qilong Yuan,
Linyue Liu,
Dan Dai,
Yuhong Zhou,
Ying Liu,
Mingyang Yang,
Mengting Qiu,
Zhenglin Jia,
He Li,
Kazhihito Nishimura,
Geng Tian,
Kuan W. A. Chee,
Shiyu Du,
Cheng-Te Lin,
Nan Jiang,
Xiaoping Ouyang

Diamond is an ultrawide bandgap semiconductor with excellent electronic and photonic properties, which has great potential applications in microelectronic and optoelectronic devices. As an allotrope of diamond, graphene also has many fantastic properties like diamond, which caught much attention in combing them together. In this work, a direct sp3-to-sp2 conversion method was proposed to fabricate graphene layers on single crystal diamond by thermal treatment with Ni film catalyst. By optimizing the conversing conditions, a thin graphene layer with low sheet resistance was obtained on diamond. Based on this, an all-carbon sandwich structural graphene-diamond-graphene (GDG) detector was fabricated, which shows low dark current of 0.45 nA at 0.5 V μm−1 applied electric field. The maximum sensitivity of this detector is obtained when the incident X-ray is 12 keV, with the value of 2.88 × 10−8 C Gy−1. Moreover, the rise time and delay time of the GDG detector is about 1.2 and 22.8 ns, respectively, which are very close to that of diamond detector with Ti/Au electrode. The realization of the direct in-situ sp3-to-sp2 conversion on diamond shows a promising approach for fabricating diamond-based all-carbon electronic devices.

direct sp3-to-sp2 conversion;
X-ray detector;
all-carbon devices
Functional Diamond
Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)

Experimental studies of electron affinity and work function from titanium on oxidised diamond (100) surfaces

Fabian Fogarty,
Neil A. Fox,
Paul W. May

Sub-monolayers of titanium were deposited onto oxidised (100) single-crystal diamond surfaces and annealed in vacuo at temperatures up to 1000 °C to find a temperature-stable termination procedure that produces a surface with Negative Electron Affinity (NEA). The samples were analysed by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Energy-Filtered Photoemission Electron Microscopy to determine their electron affinity and work function values. NEA values were observed on samples following annealing above 400 °C, with the largest NEA value being –0.9 eV for a sample coated with a half-monolayer of Ti annealed at 400 °C. Work function values were ∼4.5 eV for all samples annealed at temperatures between 400 and 600 °C, then rose at higher temperatures due to the loss of substantial amounts of O from the surface. Work-function maps indicated that the surface was uniform over areas 5700 μm2, suggesting that the deposition and annealing steps used are reliable methods to produce films with homogeneous surface properties.

CVD diamond;
thermionic emission;
titanium termination;
negative electron affinity;
work function
Functional Diamond
Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)

Viability and proliferation of A549 cell line on the surface of micro-, nano- and ultrananocrystalline diamond films grown by HFCVD with tailored gases

Jorge A. Montes-Gutiérrez,
Armida. A. Gil-Salido,
Jesus J. Alcantar-Peña,
Elida de Obaldia,
Rafael Garcia-Gutierrez,
Oscar E. Contreras-López,
Orlando Auciello

This article describes key material science/technology issues to implement polycrystalline diamond scaffolds to enable processes for biological cells growth relevant for using cells grown in the laboratory for the treatment of human biological conditions. Issues investigated include

Diamond films;
cell culture;
Functional Diamond
Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)

Past, present, and the future of the research and commercialization of CVD diamond in China

F. X. Lu

It has been half of a century since the publication of the early reports about CVD diamond films in the world in the early 1970’s. The reports for meaningful laboratory growth of diamond films with much higher growth rate and higher quality could be found in the early 1980’s, under the so-called “Diamond Fever” initiated all over the world. In less than 10 years later, CVD diamond research had started in China as “863 Plan” (High Technology Research and Development Plan in China), a newly launched program in 1987. 35 years later, it is very interesting to explore what really happened to the CVD diamond in China. As a multi-functional material with a vast combination of extraordinary electrical, mechanical, thermal, optical, acoustic, and electro-chemistry properties, the CVD diamond has wide applications potentially in the field of multidiscipline high technologies. Therefore, this article aims to provide a general review on the CVD diamond by presenting a clearer picture about the history, the research status and its development, particularly the commercialization in China. Finally, the general trend in the near future is discussed.

CVD diamond;
research and development;
Functional Diamond
Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)

Room-temperature bonding of GaN and diamond via a SiC layer

Ayaka Kobayashi,Hazuki Tomiyama,Yutaka Ohno,Yasuo Shimizu,Yasuyoshi Nagai,Naoteru Shigekawa,Jianbo Liang

A GaN-on-diamond structure is the most promising candidate for improving the heat dissipation efficiency of GaN-based power devices. Room-temperature bonding of GaN and diamond is an efficient technique for fabricating this structure. However, it is extremely difficult to polish diamond to an average roughness (Ra) below 0.4 nm, especially for polycrystalline diamond. In this work, Room-temperature bonding of GaN and rough-surfaced diamond with a SiC layer was successfully achieved by a surface-activated bonding (SAB) method. The diamond surface’s initial Ra value was 0.768 nm, but after deposition of the SiC layer, the Ra decreased to 0.365 nm. The SiC layer formed at the as-bonded GaN/diamond interface was amorphous, with a thickness of about 7 nm. After annealing at 1000-°C, the amorphous SiC layer became polycrystalline, and its thickness increased to approximately 12 nm. These results indicate that the deposition of a SiC layer on diamond can efficiently lower the diamond surface’s roughness and thus facilitate room-temperature bonding.

GaN/diamond interface;
SiC layer;
heat dissipation;
thermal management;
surface-activated bonding
Functional Diamond
Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)

Tuning diamond electronic properties for functional device applications

Anliang Lu,
Limin Yang,
Chaoqun Dang,
Heyi Wang,
Yang Zhang,
Xiaocui Li,
Hongti Zhang,
Yang Lu

Because of its ultrahigh hardness, synthetic diamond has been widely used in advanced manufacturing and mechanical engineering. As an ultra-wide bandgap semiconductor, on the other hand, diamond recently shows a great potential in electronics industry due to its outstanding physical properties. However, like silicon-based electronics, the electrical properties of diamond should be well modulated before it can be practically used in electronic devices. In this work, we briefly review the recent progresses in producing high-quality, electronic grade synthetic diamonds, as well as several typical strategies, from the conventional element doping to the emerging “elastic strain engineering,” (ESE) for tuning the electrical and functional properties of microfabricated diamonds. We also briefly show some device application demonstrations of diamond and outline some remaining challenges that are impeding diamond’s further practical applications as functional devices and offer some perspective for future functional diamond development.

electronic properties;
bandgap modulation;
elastic strain engineering;
wide bandgap semiconductor;
functional device
Functional Diamond
Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)

Highly tolerant diamond Schottky barrier photodiodes for deep-ultraviolet xenon excimer lamp and protons detection

Masataka Imura,Manabu Togawa,Masaya Miyahara,Hironori Okumura,Jiro Nishinaga,Meiyong Liao,Yasuo Koide
The response property and stability of diamond Schottky barrier photodiodes (SBPDs) were investigated for the monitor applications of deep ultraviolet (DUV) light and high-energy radiation particles. The SBPDs were fabricated on the unintentionally doped insulating diamond epilayer grown on a heavily boron-doped p+-diamond (100) conductive substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition. The vertical-type SBPDs were constructed of semitransparent tungsten carbide (WC) Schottky contact on the top of the device and a WC/titanium ohmic contact on the bottom. The SBPDs were operated to detect the DUV light and protons in zero-bias photovoltaic mode. The spectral response of the SBPDs showed that the peak wavelength was at 182 nm with a sensitivity of 46 ± 1 mA/W. The response speed was shorter than 1 sec, with a negligible charge-up effect and persistent photoconductivity. The SBPDs showed a stable response upon the irradiation by 172-nm xenon excimer lamp with 70 mW/cm2 for 200 hrs and 70 MeV protons for the dose of 10 MGy, corresponding to a non-ionizing energy loss of 1.4 × 1016 MeV neq/cm2.
Schottky barrier photodiode;
deep-ultraviolet light;
detector for xenon excimer lamp;
detector for protons
Functional Diamond
Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)

Diamond dislocations analysis by X-ray topography

Shinichi Shikata

The dislocation identification method using X-ray topography by reflection mode geometry was applied to characterize IIa, Ib and highly B doped high pressure high temperature (HPHT) grown crystals. In both IIa and Ib crystals, dislocations are found to propagate in the <111> grown direction, with dominant vectors of [110] and [1-10], neither of which has no c-axis segment. For Ib crystal, many dislocations are also generated in the <112> and <121> directions, which are slightly tilted to <111>. It was confirmed that the dislocations in the same direction have the same Burgers vectors, but the dislocations are spread in broad area. A total of up to 20 HPHT crystals were measured and found to exhibit different dislocation distributions. This indicates an immature growth technique in terms of dislocation. Measurements of four chemical vapor deposition (CVD) substrates showed numerous dislocation bundles, making individual dislocation directions analysis impossible. CVD substrates suffer from an increase in dislocations due to CVD growth, resulting in poor diamond quality in terms of dislocation. XRT analysis on dislocations of epitaxial growth will be very important prior to CVD substrates analysis.

power device;
X-ray topography
Functional Diamond
Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)

Recent applications of fluorescent nanodiamonds containing nitrogen-vacancy centers in biosensing

Yuchen Feng,Qi Zhao,Yuxi Shi,Guanyue Gao,Jinfang Zhi

Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers have been extensively studied in numerous fields because of their distinct magneto-optical properties. The NV center is a perfect candidate for a nanosensor because of its stable photoluminescence and manipulable spin state by microwave/magnetic field. Considering the controllable sizes (5–100 nm), abundant surface groups, and good biocompatibility, FNDs are valuable in biosensing to study the physiological activity at the cellular scale. This review summarizes the recent applications of FNDs in detecting physiological parameters (such as temperature, pH) as well as proteins, free radicals, viruses, etc. Highlights include the development of FND-based biosensors and the NV center transduction system that responds to signal changes or concentrations fluctuations of target species.

nitrogen-vacancy centers;
Functional Diamond
Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)

Morphology-dependent antibacterial properties of diamond coatings

Ruoying Zhang,Yuting Zheng,Jinlong Liu,Chengming Li,Chengke Chen,Xiaojun Hu,Jinlong Li,Ran Liu,Haitao Ye

Microorganisms promoted corrosion has caused significant loss to marine engineering and the antibacterial coatings have served as a solution that has gained attention. In this study, the chemical vapour deposition technique has been employed to grow three different types of diamond coatings, namely, ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD), nanocrystalline diamond (NCD), and microcrystalline diamond (MCD) coatings. The evolution of associated surface morphology and the surface functional groups of the grown coatings have demonstrated antibacterial activity in seawater environments. It is found that different ratio of sp3/sp2 carbon bonds on the diamond coatings influences their surface property (hydrophobic/hydrophilic), which changes the anti-adhesion behaviour of diamond coatings against bacteria. This plays a critical role in determining the antibacterial property of the developed coatings. The results show that the diamond coatings arising from the deposition process kill the bacteria via a combination of the mechanical effects and the functional groups on the surface of UNCD, NCD, and MCD coatings, respectively. These antibacterial coatings are effective to both Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli) and Gram-positive bacteria (B. subtilis) for 1–6 h of incubation time. When the contact duration is prolonged to 6 h or over, the MCD coatings begin to reduce the bacteria colonies drastically and enhance the bacteriostatic rate for both E. coli and B. subtilis.

Diamond coatings;
B. subtilis;
E. coli
Functional Diamond
Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)

Heteroepitaxy of diamond semiconductor on iridium: a review

Weihua Wang,Benjian Liu,Leining Zhang,Jiecai Han,Kang Liu,Bing Dai,Jiaqi Zhu

As one of the representatives of carbon-based semiconductors, diamond is called the “Mount Everest” of electronic materials. To maximize its properties and realize its industrial applications, the fabrication of wafer-scale high-quality diamonds is critical. To date, heteroepitaxy is considered as a promising method for the growth of diamond wafers with considerable development. In this review, fundamentals of diamond heteroepitaxy is firstly introduced from several perspectives including nucleation thermodynamics and kinetic, nucleation process at the atomic level, as well as the interplay between the epitaxial film and substrate. Second, the bias enhanced nucleation (BEN) method is reviewed, including BEN setup, BEN process window, nucleation phenomenology (mainly on Iridium), nucleation mechanism by ion bombardment, and large-scale nucleation realization. Third, the following textured growth process is presented, as well as grain boundary annihilation, and dislocation and stress reduction technologies. Fourth, the applications of diamonds in electronic devices are studied, showing its excellent performances in the future power and electronic devices. Finally, prospects in this field are proposed from several aspects.

Diamond wafer;
large size;
bias enhanced nucleation;
textured growth;
electronic applications
Functional Diamond
Volume 2, Issue 1 (2022)